Tag Archives: Women

Hepatic but Not Extrahepatic Insulin Clearance Is Lower in African American Than in European American Women

African Americans (AAs) tend to have higher plasma insulin concentrations than European Americans (EAs); the increased insulin concentrations have been attributed to increased secretion and/or decreased insulin clearance by liver or other tissues. This work characterizes the contributions of hepatic versus extrahepatic insulin degradation related to ethnic differences between AAs and EAs. By using a recently developed mathematical model that uses insulin and C-peptide measurements from the insulin-modified, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT), we estimated hepatic versus extrahepatic insulin clearance in 29 EA and 18 AA healthy women. During the first 20 min of the FSIGT, plasma insulin was approximately twice as high in AAs as in EAs. In contrast, insulin was similar in AAs and EAs after the 20–25 min intravenous insulin infusion. Hepatic insulin first-pass extraction was two-thirds lower in AAs versus EAs in the overnight-fasted state. In contrast, extrahepatic insulin clearance was not lower in AAs than in EAs. The difference in insulin degradation between AAs and EAs can be attributed totally to liver clearance. The mechanism underlying reduced insulin degradation in AAs remains to be clarified, as does the relative importance of reduced liver clearance to increased risk for type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Impact of Changes Over Time in Adipokines and Inflammatory Proteins on Changes in Insulin Sensitivity, {beta}-Cell Function, and Glycemia in Women With Previous Gestational Dysglycemia

Ravi Retnakaran
Aug 1, 2017; 40:e101-e102
e-Letters: Observations
: Most-Read Full-Text Articles





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Association Between Glycemic Variability, HbA1c, and Large-for-Gestational-Age Neonates in Women With Type 1 Diabetes

Rachel T. McGrath
Aug 1, 2017; 40:e98-e100
e-Letters: Observations
: Most-Read Full-Text Articles





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Comment on Muka et al. Associations of Steroid Sex Hormones and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin With the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women: A Population-Based Cohort Study and Meta-analysis. Diabetes 2017;66:577-586

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Associations of Steroid Sex Hormones and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin With the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women: A Population-Based Cohort Study and Meta-analysis

It remains unclear whether endogenous sex hormones (ESH) are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in women. Data of 3,117 postmenopausal women participants of the Rotterdam Study were analyzed to examine whether ESH and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) were associated with the risk of incident T2D. Additionally, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing the prospective association of ESH and SHBG with T2D in women. During a median follow-up of 11.1 years, we identified 384 incident cases of T2D in the Rotterdam Study. No association was observed between total testosterone (TT) or bioavailable testosterone (BT) with T2D. SHBG was inversely associated with the risk of T2D, whereas total estradiol (TE) was associated with increased risk of T2D. Similarly, in the meta-analysis of 13 population-based prospective studies involving more than 1,912 incident T2D cases, low levels of SHBG and high levels of TE were associated with increased risk of T2D, whereas no associations were found for other hormones. The association of SHBG with T2D did not change by menopause status, whereas the associations of ESH and T2D were based only in postmenopausal women. SHBG and TE are independent risk factors for the development of T2D in women.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Is Estradiol a Biomarker of Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Postmenopausal Women?

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Effect of Regular Exercise Commenced in Early Pregnancy on the Incidence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Chen Wang, Yumei Wei, Xiaoming Zhang, Yue Zhang, Qianqian Xu, Shiping Su, Li Zhang, Chunhong Liu, Yaru Feng, Chong Shou, Kym J. Guelfi, John P. Newnham, Huixia Yang
Oct 1, 2016; 39:163-164
e-Letters: Observations
Diabetes Care: Most-Read Full-Text Articles





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