Tag Archives: Sensitivity

Opposite Regulation of Insulin Sensitivity by Dietary Lipid Versus Carbohydrate Excess

To understand the mechanisms in lipid-induced insulin resistance, a more physiological approach is to enhance fatty acid (FA) availability through the diet. Nine healthy men ingested two hypercaloric diets (in 75% excess of habitual caloric intake) for 3 days, enriched in unsaturated FA (78 energy % [E%] fat) (UNSAT) or carbohydrates (80 E% carbohydrate) (CHO) as well as a eucaloric control diet (CON). Compared with CON, the UNSAT diet reduced whole-body and leg glucose disposal during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, while decreasing hepatic glucose production. In muscle, diacylglycerol (DAG) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol were increased. The accumulated DAG was sn-1,3 DAG, which is known not to activate PKC, and insulin signaling was intact. UNSAT decreased PDH-E1α protein content and increased inhibitory PDH-E1α Ser300 phosphorylation and FA oxidation. CHO increased whole-body and leg insulin sensitivity, while increasing hepatic glucose production. After CHO, muscle PDH-E1α Ser300 phosphorylation was decreased, and glucose oxidation increased. After UNSAT, but not CHO, muscle glucose-6-phosphate content was 103% higher compared with CON during the clamp. Thus, PDH-E1α expression and covalent regulation, and hence the tricarboxylic acid cycle influx of pyruvate-derived acetyl-CoA relative to β-oxidation–derived acetyl-CoA, are suggested to impact on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Taken together, the oxidative metabolic fluxes of glucose and FA are powerful and opposite regulators of insulin action in muscle.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Impact of Changes Over Time in Adipokines and Inflammatory Proteins on Changes in Insulin Sensitivity, {beta}-Cell Function, and Glycemia in Women With Previous Gestational Dysglycemia

Ravi Retnakaran
Aug 1, 2017; 40:e101-e102
e-Letters: Observations
: Most-Read Full-Text Articles





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Longitudinal Associations Between Ambient Air Pollution With Insulin Sensitivity, {beta}-Cell Function, and Adiposity in Los Angeles Latino Children

Evidence suggests that ambient air pollution (AAP) exposure may contribute to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to elevated concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 (PM2.5) had adverse effects on longitudinal measures of insulin sensitivity (SI), β-cell function, and obesity in children at high risk for developing diabetes. Overweight and obese Latino children (8–15 years; n = 314) were enrolled between 2001 and 2012 from Los Angeles, CA, and followed for an average of 3.4 years (SD 3.1 years). Linear mixed-effects models were fitted to assess relationships between AAP exposure and outcomes after adjusting for covariates including body fat percent. Higher NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with a faster decline in SI and a lower SI at age 18 years, independent of adiposity. NO2 exposure negatively affected β-cell function, evidenced by a faster decline in disposition index (DI) and a lower DI at age 18 years. Higher NO2 and PM2.5 exposures over follow-up were also associated with a higher BMI at age 18 years. AAP exposure may contribute to development of type 2 diabetes through direct effects on SI and β-cell function.

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Evidence That the Sympathetic Nervous System Elicits Rapid, Coordinated, and Reciprocal Adjustments of Insulin Secretion and Insulin Sensitivity During Cold Exposure

Dynamic adjustment of insulin secretion to compensate for changes of insulin sensitivity that result from alteration of nutritional or metabolic status is a fundamental aspect of glucose homeostasis. To investigate the role of the brain in this coupling process, we used cold exposure as an experimental paradigm because the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) helps to coordinate the major shifts of tissue glucose utilization needed to ensure that increased thermogenic needs are met. We found that glucose-induced insulin secretion declined by 50% in rats housed at 5°C for 28 h, and yet, glucose tolerance did not change, owing to a doubling of insulin sensitivity. These potent effects on insulin secretion and sensitivity were fully reversed by returning animals to room temperature (22°C) for 4 h or by intravenous infusion of the α-adrenergic receptor antagonist phentolamine for only 30 min. By comparison, insulin clearance was not affected by cold exposure or phentolamine infusion. These findings offer direct evidence of a key role for the brain, acting via the SNS, in the rapid, highly coordinated, and reciprocal changes of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity that preserve glucose homeostasis in the setting of cold exposure.

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Enhanced Muscle Insulin Sensitivity After Contraction/Exercise Is Mediated by AMPK

Earlier studies have demonstrated that muscle insulin sensitivity to stimulate glucose uptake is enhanced several hours after an acute bout of exercise. Using AICAR, we recently demonstrated that prior activation of AMPK is sufficient to increase insulin sensitivity in mouse skeletal muscle. Here we aimed to determine whether activation of AMPK is also a prerequisite for the ability of muscle contraction to increase insulin sensitivity. We found that prior in situ contraction of m. extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and treadmill exercise increased muscle and whole-body insulin sensitivity in wild-type (WT) mice, respectively. These effects were not found in AMPKα1α2 muscle-specific knockout mice. Prior in situ contraction did not increase insulin sensitivity in m. soleus from either genotype. Improvement in muscle insulin sensitivity was not associated with enhanced glycogen synthase activity or proximal insulin signaling. However, in WT EDL muscle, prior in situ contraction enhanced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of TBC1D4 Thr649 and Ser711. Such findings are also evident in prior exercised and insulin-sensitized human skeletal muscle. Collectively, our data suggest that the AMPK-TBC1D4 signaling axis is likely mediating the improved muscle insulin sensitivity after contraction/exercise and illuminates an important and physiologically relevant role of AMPK in skeletal muscle.

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Brain GLUT4 Knockout Mice Have Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Decreased Insulin Sensitivity, and Impaired Hypoglycemic Counterregulation

GLUT4 in muscle and adipose tissue is important in maintaining glucose homeostasis. However, the role of insulin-responsive GLUT4 in the central nervous system has not been well characterized. To assess its importance, a selective knockout of brain GLUT4 (BG4KO) was generated by crossing Nestin-Cre mice with GLUT4-floxed mice. BG4KO mice had a 99% reduction in GLUT4 protein expression throughout the brain. Despite normal feeding and fasting glycemia, BG4KO mice were glucose intolerant, demonstrated hepatic insulin resistance, and had reduced glucose uptake in the brain. In response to hypoglycemia, BG4KO mice had impaired glucose sensing, noted by impaired epinephrine and glucagon responses and impaired c-fos activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Moreover, in vitro glucose sensing of glucose-inhibitory neurons from the ventromedial hypothalamus was impaired in BG4KO mice. In summary, BG4KO mice are glucose intolerant, insulin resistant, and have impaired glucose sensing, indicating a critical role for brain GLUT4 in sensing and responding to changes in blood glucose.

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Lack of CUL4B in Adipocytes Promotes PPAR{gamma}-Mediated Adipose Tissue Expansion and Insulin Sensitivity

Obesity and obesity-associated diseases are linked to dysregulation of the peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. Identification of the factors that regulate PPAR expression and activity is crucial for combating obesity. However, the ubiquitin E3 ligases that target PPAR for proteasomal degradation have been rarely identified, and their functions in vivo have not been characterized. Here we report that CUL4B-RING E3 ligase (CRL4B) negatively regulates PPAR by promoting its polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Depletion of CUL4B led to upregulation of PPAR-regulated genes and facilitated adipogenesis. Adipocyte-specific Cul4b knockout (AKO) mice being fed a high-fat diet exhibited increased body fat accumulation that was mediated by increased adipogenesis. However, AKO mice showed improved metabolic phenotypes, including increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Correspondingly, there was a decreased inflammatory response in adipose tissues of AKO mice. Genetic inhibition of CUL4B thus appears to phenocopy the beneficial effects of PPAR agonists. Collectively, this study establishes a critical role of CRL4B in the regulation of PPAR stability and insulin sensitivity and suggests that CUL4B could be a potential therapeutic target for combating obesity and metabolic syndromes.

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Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1 Could Improve Glucose Regulation and Insulin Sensitivity Through Its RGD Domain

Low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) are associated with insulin resistance and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. IGFBP-1 can affect cellular functions independently of IGF binding through an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) integrin-binding motif. Whether causal mechanisms underlie the favorable association of high IGFBP-1 levels with insulin sensitivity and whether these could be exploited therapeutically remain unexplored. We used recombinant IGFBP-1 and a synthetic RGD-containing hexapeptide in complementary in vitro signaling assays and in vivo metabolic profiling in obese mice to investigate the effects of IGFBP-1 and its RGD domain on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and whole-body glucose regulation. The RGD integrin-binding domain of IGFBP-1, through integrin engagement, focal adhesion kinase, and integrin-linked kinase, enhanced insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in C2C12 myotubes and INS-1 832/13 pancreatic β-cells. Both acute administration and chronic infusion of an RGD synthetic peptide to obese C57BL/6 mice improved glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity. These favorable effects on metabolic homeostasis suggest that the RGD integrin-binding domain of IGFBP-1 may be a promising candidate for therapeutic development in the field of insulin resistance.

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A Novel Function of Hepatic FOG2 in Insulin Sensitivity and Lipid Metabolism Through PPAR{alpha}

Friend of GATA 2 (FOG2) is a transcriptional cofactor involved mostly in cardiac function. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hepatic FOG2 in insulin sensitivity and lipid accumulation. FOG2 overexpression by adenovirus-expressing FOG2 (Ad-FOG2) significantly attenuates insulin signaling in hepatocytes in vitro. Opposite effects were observed when FOG2 was knocked down through adenovirus-expressing small hairpin RNA for FOG2 (Ad-shFOG2). Furthermore, FOG2 knockdown by Ad-shFOG2 ameliorated insulin resistance in leptin receptor–mutated (db/db) mice, and FOG2 overexpression by Ad-FOG2 attenuated insulin sensitivity in C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, Ad-FOG2 reduced, whereas Ad-shFOG2 promoted, hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in WT mice under fed or fasted conditions, which was associated with increased or decreased hepatic peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α (PPARα) expression, respectively. Moreover, the improved insulin sensitivity and increased hepatic TG accumulation by Ad-shFOG2 were largely reversed by adenovirus-expressing PPARα (Ad-PPARα) in WT mice. Finally, we generated FOG2 liver-specific knockout mice and found that they exhibit enhanced insulin sensitivity and elevated hepatic TG accumulation, which were also reversed by Ad-PPARα. Taken together, the results demonstrate a novel function of hepatic FOG2 in insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism through PPARα.

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Proximity to Delivery Alters Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Metabolism in Pregnant Mice

In late pregnancy, maternal insulin resistance occurs to support fetal growth, but little is known about insulin-glucose dynamics close to delivery. This study measured insulin sensitivity in mice in late pregnancy at day 16 (D16) and near term at D19. Nonpregnant (NP) and pregnant mice were assessed for metabolite and hormone concentrations, body composition by DEXA, tissue insulin signaling protein abundance by Western blotting, glucose tolerance and utilization, and insulin sensitivity using acute insulin administration and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with [3H]glucose infusion. Whole-body insulin resistance occurred in D16 pregnant dams in association with basal hyperinsulinemia, insulin-resistant endogenous glucose production, and downregulation of several proteins in hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin signaling pathways relative to NP and D19 values. Insulin resistance was less pronounced at D19, with restoration of NP insulin concentrations, improved hepatic insulin sensitivity, and increased abundance of hepatic insulin signaling proteins. At D16, insulin resistance at whole-body, tissue, and molecular levels will favor fetal glucose acquisition, while improved D19 hepatic insulin sensitivity will conserve glucose for maternal use in anticipation of lactation. Tissue sensitivity to insulin, therefore, alters differentially with proximity to delivery in pregnant mice, with implications for human and other species.

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