Tag Archives: Lipid

Opposite Regulation of Insulin Sensitivity by Dietary Lipid Versus Carbohydrate Excess

To understand the mechanisms in lipid-induced insulin resistance, a more physiological approach is to enhance fatty acid (FA) availability through the diet. Nine healthy men ingested two hypercaloric diets (in 75% excess of habitual caloric intake) for 3 days, enriched in unsaturated FA (78 energy % [E%] fat) (UNSAT) or carbohydrates (80 E% carbohydrate) (CHO) as well as a eucaloric control diet (CON). Compared with CON, the UNSAT diet reduced whole-body and leg glucose disposal during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, while decreasing hepatic glucose production. In muscle, diacylglycerol (DAG) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol were increased. The accumulated DAG was sn-1,3 DAG, which is known not to activate PKC, and insulin signaling was intact. UNSAT decreased PDH-E1α protein content and increased inhibitory PDH-E1α Ser300 phosphorylation and FA oxidation. CHO increased whole-body and leg insulin sensitivity, while increasing hepatic glucose production. After CHO, muscle PDH-E1α Ser300 phosphorylation was decreased, and glucose oxidation increased. After UNSAT, but not CHO, muscle glucose-6-phosphate content was 103% higher compared with CON during the clamp. Thus, PDH-E1α expression and covalent regulation, and hence the tricarboxylic acid cycle influx of pyruvate-derived acetyl-CoA relative to β-oxidation–derived acetyl-CoA, are suggested to impact on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Taken together, the oxidative metabolic fluxes of glucose and FA are powerful and opposite regulators of insulin action in muscle.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Disruption of Lipid Uptake in Astroglia Exacerbates Diet-Induced Obesity

Neuronal circuits in the brain help to control feeding behavior and systemic metabolism in response to afferent nutrient and hormonal signals. Although astrocytes have historically been assumed to have little relevance for such neuroendocrine control, we investigated whether lipid uptake via lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in astrocytes is required to centrally regulate energy homeostasis. Ex vivo studies with hypothalamus-derived astrocytes showed that LPL expression is upregulated by oleic acid, whereas it is decreased in response to palmitic acid or triglycerides. Likewise, astrocytic LPL deletion reduced the accumulation of lipid droplets in those glial cells. Consecutive in vivo studies showed that postnatal ablation of LPL in glial fibrillary acidic protein–expressing astrocytes induced exaggerated body weight gain and glucose intolerance in mice exposed to a high-fat diet. Intriguingly, astrocytic LPL deficiency also triggered increased ceramide content in the hypothalamus, which may contribute to hypothalamic insulin resistance. We conclude that hypothalamic LPL functions in astrocytes to ensure appropriately balanced nutrient sensing, ceramide distribution, body weight regulation, and glucose metabolism.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Mitochondrial-Targeted Catalase Protects Against High-Fat Diet-Induced Muscle Insulin Resistance by Decreasing Intramuscular Lipid Accumulation

We explored the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of muscle insulin resistance. We assessed insulin action in vivo with a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in mice expressing a mitochondrial-targeted catalase (MCAT) that were fed regular chow (RC) or a high-fat diet (HFD) or underwent an acute infusion of a lipid emulsion. RC-fed MCAT mice were similar to littermate wild-type (WT) mice. However, HFD-fed MCAT mice were protected from diet-induced insulin resistance. In contrast, an acute lipid infusion caused muscle insulin resistance in both MCAT and WT mice. ROS production was decreased in both HFD-fed and lipid-infused MCAT mice and cannot explain the divergent response in insulin action. MCAT mice had subtly increased energy expenditure and muscle fat oxidation with decreased intramuscular diacylglycerol (DAG) accumulation, protein kinase C- (PKC) activation, and impaired insulin signaling with HFD. In contrast, the insulin resistance with the acute lipid infusion was associated with increased muscle DAG content in both WT and MCAT mice. These studies suggest that altering muscle mitochondrial ROS production does not directly alter the development of lipid-induced insulin resistance. However, the altered energy balance in HFD-fed MCAT mice protected them from DAG accumulation, PKC activation, and impaired muscle insulin signaling.

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Altered miR-29 Expression in Type 2 Diabetes Influences Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle

MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism in several tissues; however, their role in skeletal muscle remains poorly characterized. We determined the effects of the miR-29 family on glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle. We provide evidence that miR-29a and miR-29c are increased in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and are decreased following endurance training in healthy young men and in rats. In primary human skeletal muscle cells, inhibition and overexpression strategies demonstrate that miR-29a and miR-29c regulate glucose uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism. We identified that miR-29 overexpression attenuates insulin signaling and expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Moreover, miR-29 overexpression reduces hexokinase 2 expression and activity. Conversely, overexpression of miR-29 by electroporation of mouse tibialis anterior muscle decreased glucose uptake and glycogen content in vivo, concomitant with decreased abundance of GLUT4. We also provide evidence that fatty acid oxidation is negatively regulated by miR-29 overexpression, potentially through the regulation of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor coactivator-1α expression. Collectively, we reveal that miR-29 acts as an important regulator of insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism and lipid oxidation, with relevance to human physiology and type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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FGF21 Mediates the Thermogenic and Insulin-Sensitizing Effects of Dietary Methionine Restriction but Not Its Effects on Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

Dietary methionine restriction (MR) produces a rapid and persistent remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT), an increase in energy expenditure (EE), and enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Recent work established that hepatic expression of FGF21 is robustly increased by MR. Fgf21–/– mice were used to test whether FGF21 is an essential mediator of the physiological effects of dietary MR. The MR-induced increase in energy intake and EE and activation of thermogenesis in WAT and brown adipose tissue were lost in Fgf21–/– mice. However, dietary MR produced a comparable reduction in body weight and adiposity in both genotypes because of a negative effect of MR on energy intake in Fgf21–/– mice. Despite the similar loss in weight, dietary MR produced a more significant increase in in vivo insulin sensitivity in wild-type than in Fgf21–/– mice, particularly in heart and inguinal WAT. In contrast, the ability of MR to regulate lipogenic and integrated stress response genes in liver was not compromised in Fgf21–/– mice. Collectively, these findings illustrate that FGF21 is a critical mediator of the effects of dietary MR on EE, remodeling of WAT, and increased insulin sensitivity but not of its effects on hepatic gene expression.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Growth Hormone Control of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

In humans, low levels of growth hormone (GH) and its mediator, IGF-1, associate with hepatic lipid accumulation. In mice, congenital liver-specific ablation of the GH receptor (GHR) results in reductions in circulating IGF-1 and hepatic steatosis, associated with systemic insulin resistance. Due to the intricate relationship between GH and IGF-1, the relative contribution of each hormone to the development of hepatic steatosis is unclear. Our goal was to dissect the mechanisms by which hepatic GH resistance leads to steatosis and overall insulin resistance, independent of IGF-1. We have generated a combined mouse model with liver-specific ablation of GHR in which we restored liver IGF-1 expression via the hepatic IGF-1 transgene. We found that liver GHR ablation leads to increases in lipid uptake, de novo lipogenesis, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia accompanied with severe insulin resistance and increased body adiposity and serum lipids. Restoration of IGF-1 improved overall insulin sensitivity and lipid profile in serum and reduced body adiposity, but was insufficient to protect against steatosis-induced hepatic inflammation or oxidative stress. We conclude that the impaired metabolism in states of GH resistance results from direct actions of GH on lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis, whereas its actions on extrahepatic tissues are mediated by IGF-1.

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Enhanced GLUT4-Dependent Glucose Transport Relieves Nutrient Stress in Obese Mice Through Changes in Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolism

Impaired GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake is a contributing factor in the development of whole-body insulin resistance in obese patients and obese animal models. Previously, we demonstrated that transgenic mice engineered to express the human GLUT4 gene under the control of the human GLUT4 promoter (i.e., transgenic [TG] mice) are resistant to obesity-induced insulin resistance. A likely mechanism underlying increased insulin sensitivity is increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the broader metabolic consequences of enhanced glucose uptake into muscle. We observed that the expression of several nuclear and mitochondrially encoded mitochondrial enzymes was decreased in TG mice but that mitochondrial number, size, and fatty acid respiration rates were unchanged. Interestingly, both pyruvate and glutamate respiration rates were decreased in TG mice. Metabolomics analyses of skeletal muscle samples revealed that increased GLUT4 transgene expression was associated with decreased levels of some tricarboxylic acid intermediates and amino acids, whereas the levels of several glucogenic amino acids were elevated. Furthermore, fasting acyl carnitines in obese TG mice were decreased, indicating that increased GLUT4-dependent glucose flux decreases nutrient stress by altering lipid and amino acid metabolism in skeletal muscle.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Celiac Disease Negatively Influences Lipid Profiles in Young Children With Type 1 Diabetes: Effect of the Gluten-Free Diet

Silvana Salardi, Giulio Maltoni, Stefano Zucchini, Dario Iafusco, Santino Confetto, Angela Zanfardino, Sonia Toni, Barbara Piccini, Maximiliano Zioutas, Marco Marigliano, Vittoria Cauvin, Roberto Franceschi, Ivana Rabbone, Barbara Predieri, Riccardo Schiaffini, Alessandro Salvatoni, Petra Reinstadler, Giulia Berioli, Valentino Cherubini, Giuseppe dAnnunzio, for the Diabetes Study Group of the Italian Society of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology (ISPED)
Aug 1, 2016; 39:119-120
e-Letters: Observations
Diabetes Care: Most-Read Full-Text Articles





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A Novel Function of Hepatic FOG2 in Insulin Sensitivity and Lipid Metabolism Through PPAR{alpha}

Friend of GATA 2 (FOG2) is a transcriptional cofactor involved mostly in cardiac function. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hepatic FOG2 in insulin sensitivity and lipid accumulation. FOG2 overexpression by adenovirus-expressing FOG2 (Ad-FOG2) significantly attenuates insulin signaling in hepatocytes in vitro. Opposite effects were observed when FOG2 was knocked down through adenovirus-expressing small hairpin RNA for FOG2 (Ad-shFOG2). Furthermore, FOG2 knockdown by Ad-shFOG2 ameliorated insulin resistance in leptin receptor–mutated (db/db) mice, and FOG2 overexpression by Ad-FOG2 attenuated insulin sensitivity in C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, Ad-FOG2 reduced, whereas Ad-shFOG2 promoted, hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in WT mice under fed or fasted conditions, which was associated with increased or decreased hepatic peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α (PPARα) expression, respectively. Moreover, the improved insulin sensitivity and increased hepatic TG accumulation by Ad-shFOG2 were largely reversed by adenovirus-expressing PPARα (Ad-PPARα) in WT mice. Finally, we generated FOG2 liver-specific knockout mice and found that they exhibit enhanced insulin sensitivity and elevated hepatic TG accumulation, which were also reversed by Ad-PPARα. Taken together, the results demonstrate a novel function of hepatic FOG2 in insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism through PPARα.

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Relative Contribution of Intramyocellular Lipid to Whole-Body Fat Oxidation Is Reduced With Age but Subsarcolemmal Lipid Accumulation and Insulin Resistance Are Only Associated With Overweight Individuals

Insulin resistance is closely related to intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation, and both are associated with increasing age. It remains to be determined to what extent perturbations in IMCL metabolism are related to the aging process per se. On two separate occasions, whole-body and muscle insulin sensitivity (euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp with 2-deoxyglucose) and fat utilization during 1 h of exercise at 50% VO2max ([U-13C]palmitate infusion combined with electron microscopy of IMCL) were determined in young lean (YL), old lean (OL), and old overweight (OO) males. OL displayed IMCL content and insulin sensitivity comparable with those in YL, whereas OO were markedly insulin resistant and had more than twofold greater IMCL in the subsarcolemmal (SSL) region. Indeed, whereas the plasma free fatty acid Ra and Rd were twice those of YL in both OL and OO, SSL area only increased during exercise in OO. Thus, skeletal muscle insulin resistance and lipid accumulation often observed in older individuals are likely due to lifestyle factors rather than inherent aging of skeletal muscle as usually reported. However, age per se appears to cause exacerbated adipose tissue lipolysis, suggesting that strategies to reduce muscle lipid delivery and improve adipose tissue function may be warranted in older overweight individuals.

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