Tag Archives: Leads

Adipocyte-Specific Deficiency of De Novo Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Leads to Lipodystrophy and Insulin Resistance

Sphingolipids have been implicated in the etiology of chronic metabolic diseases. Here, we investigated whether sphingolipid biosynthesis is associated with the development of adipose tissues and metabolic diseases. SPTLC2, a subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase, was transcriptionally upregulated in the adipose tissues of obese mice and in differentiating adipocytes. Adipocyte-specific SPTLC2-deficient (aSPTLC2 KO) mice had markedly reduced adipose tissue mass. Fatty acids that were destined for the adipose tissue were instead shunted to liver and caused hepatosteatosis. This impaired fat distribution caused systemic insulin resistance and hyperglycemia, indicating severe lipodystrophy. Mechanistically, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) was reduced in the adipose tissues of aSPTLC2 KO mice, and this inhibited adipocyte proliferation and differentiation via the downregulation of S1P receptor 1 and decreased activity of the peroxisome proliferator–activator receptor . In addition, downregulation of SREBP (sterol regulatory element–binding protein)-1c prevented adipogenesis of aSPTLC2 KO adipocytes. Collectively, our observations suggest that the tight regulation of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis and S1P signaling plays an important role in adipogenesis and hepatosteatosis.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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ALOX5AP Overexpression in Adipose Tissue Leads to LXA4 Production and Protection Against Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance

Eicosanoids, such as leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4), may play a key role during obesity. While LTB4 is involved in adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance, LXA4 may exert anti-inflammatory effects and alleviate hepatic steatosis. Both lipid mediators derive from the same pathway, in which arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) and its partner, arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase–activating protein (ALOX5AP), are involved. ALOX5 and ALOX5AP expression is increased in humans and rodents with obesity and insulin resistance. We found that transgenic mice overexpressing ALOX5AP in adipose tissue had higher LXA4 rather than higher LTB4 levels, were leaner, and showed increased energy expenditure, partly due to browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Upregulation of hepatic LXR and Cyp7a1 led to higher bile acid synthesis, which may have contributed to increased thermogenesis. In addition, transgenic mice were protected against diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation. Finally, treatment of C57BL/6J mice with LXA4, which showed browning of WAT, strongly suggests that LXA4 is responsible for the transgenic mice phenotype. Thus, our data support that LXA4 may hold great potential for the future development of therapeutic strategies for obesity and related diseases.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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