Tag Archives: Insulin

Recruitment of Epac2A to Insulin Granule Docking Sites Regulates Priming for Exocytosis

Epac is a cAMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factor that mediates cAMP signaling in various types of cells, including β-cells, where it is involved in the control of insulin secretion. Upon activation, the protein redistributes to the plasma membrane, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and functional consequences are unclear. Using quantitative high-resolution microscopy, we found that cAMP elevation caused rapid binding of Epac2A to the β-cell plasma membrane, where it accumulated specifically at secretory granules and rendered them more prone to undergo exocytosis. cAMP-dependent membrane binding required the high-affinity cyclic nucleotide-binding (CNB) and Ras association domains, but not the disheveled–Egl-10–pleckstrin domain. Although the N-terminal low-affinity CNB domain (CNB-A) was dispensable for the translocation to the membrane, it was critical for directing Epac2A to the granule sites. Epac1, which lacks the CNB-A domain, was recruited to the plasma membrane but did not accumulate at granules. We conclude that Epac2A controls secretory granule release by binding to the exocytosis machinery, an effect that is enhanced by prior cAMP-dependent accumulation of the protein at the plasma membrane.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Adipocyte-Specific Deficiency of De Novo Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Leads to Lipodystrophy and Insulin Resistance

Sphingolipids have been implicated in the etiology of chronic metabolic diseases. Here, we investigated whether sphingolipid biosynthesis is associated with the development of adipose tissues and metabolic diseases. SPTLC2, a subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase, was transcriptionally upregulated in the adipose tissues of obese mice and in differentiating adipocytes. Adipocyte-specific SPTLC2-deficient (aSPTLC2 KO) mice had markedly reduced adipose tissue mass. Fatty acids that were destined for the adipose tissue were instead shunted to liver and caused hepatosteatosis. This impaired fat distribution caused systemic insulin resistance and hyperglycemia, indicating severe lipodystrophy. Mechanistically, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) was reduced in the adipose tissues of aSPTLC2 KO mice, and this inhibited adipocyte proliferation and differentiation via the downregulation of S1P receptor 1 and decreased activity of the peroxisome proliferator–activator receptor . In addition, downregulation of SREBP (sterol regulatory element–binding protein)-1c prevented adipogenesis of aSPTLC2 KO adipocytes. Collectively, our observations suggest that the tight regulation of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis and S1P signaling plays an important role in adipogenesis and hepatosteatosis.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Opposite Regulation of Insulin Sensitivity by Dietary Lipid Versus Carbohydrate Excess

To understand the mechanisms in lipid-induced insulin resistance, a more physiological approach is to enhance fatty acid (FA) availability through the diet. Nine healthy men ingested two hypercaloric diets (in 75% excess of habitual caloric intake) for 3 days, enriched in unsaturated FA (78 energy % [E%] fat) (UNSAT) or carbohydrates (80 E% carbohydrate) (CHO) as well as a eucaloric control diet (CON). Compared with CON, the UNSAT diet reduced whole-body and leg glucose disposal during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, while decreasing hepatic glucose production. In muscle, diacylglycerol (DAG) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol were increased. The accumulated DAG was sn-1,3 DAG, which is known not to activate PKC, and insulin signaling was intact. UNSAT decreased PDH-E1α protein content and increased inhibitory PDH-E1α Ser300 phosphorylation and FA oxidation. CHO increased whole-body and leg insulin sensitivity, while increasing hepatic glucose production. After CHO, muscle PDH-E1α Ser300 phosphorylation was decreased, and glucose oxidation increased. After UNSAT, but not CHO, muscle glucose-6-phosphate content was 103% higher compared with CON during the clamp. Thus, PDH-E1α expression and covalent regulation, and hence the tricarboxylic acid cycle influx of pyruvate-derived acetyl-CoA relative to β-oxidation–derived acetyl-CoA, are suggested to impact on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Taken together, the oxidative metabolic fluxes of glucose and FA are powerful and opposite regulators of insulin action in muscle.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Hepatic but Not Extrahepatic Insulin Clearance Is Lower in African American Than in European American Women

African Americans (AAs) tend to have higher plasma insulin concentrations than European Americans (EAs); the increased insulin concentrations have been attributed to increased secretion and/or decreased insulin clearance by liver or other tissues. This work characterizes the contributions of hepatic versus extrahepatic insulin degradation related to ethnic differences between AAs and EAs. By using a recently developed mathematical model that uses insulin and C-peptide measurements from the insulin-modified, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT), we estimated hepatic versus extrahepatic insulin clearance in 29 EA and 18 AA healthy women. During the first 20 min of the FSIGT, plasma insulin was approximately twice as high in AAs as in EAs. In contrast, insulin was similar in AAs and EAs after the 20–25 min intravenous insulin infusion. Hepatic insulin first-pass extraction was two-thirds lower in AAs versus EAs in the overnight-fasted state. In contrast, extrahepatic insulin clearance was not lower in AAs than in EAs. The difference in insulin degradation between AAs and EAs can be attributed totally to liver clearance. The mechanism underlying reduced insulin degradation in AAs remains to be clarified, as does the relative importance of reduced liver clearance to increased risk for type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Dual Regulation of Gluconeogenesis by Insulin and Glucose in the Proximal Tubules of the Kidney

Growing attention has been focused on the roles of the proximal tubules (PTs) of the kidney in glucose metabolism, including the mechanism of regulation of gluconeogenesis. In this study, we found that PT-specific insulin receptor substrate 1/2 double-knockout mice, established by using the newly generated sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2)-Cre transgenic mice, exhibited impaired insulin signaling and upregulated gluconeogenic gene expression and renal gluconeogenesis, resulting in systemic insulin resistance. In contrast, in streptozotocin-treated mice, although insulin action was impaired in the PTs, the gluconeogenic gene expression was unexpectedly downregulated in the renal cortex, which was restored by administration of an SGLT1/2 inhibitor. In the HK-2 cells, the gluconeogenic gene expression was suppressed by insulin, accompanied by phosphorylation and inactivation of forkhead box transcription factor 1 (FoxO1). In contrast, glucose deacetylated peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor coactivator 1-α (PGC1α), a coactivator of FoxO1, via sirtuin 1, suppressing the gluconeogenic gene expression, which was reversed by inhibition of glucose reabsorption. These data suggest that both insulin signaling and glucose reabsorption suppress the gluconeogenic gene expression by inactivation of FoxO1 and PGC1α, respectively, providing insight into novel mechanisms underlying the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the PTs.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Impact of Changes Over Time in Adipokines and Inflammatory Proteins on Changes in Insulin Sensitivity, {beta}-Cell Function, and Glycemia in Women With Previous Gestational Dysglycemia

Ravi Retnakaran
Aug 1, 2017; 40:e101-e102
e-Letters: Observations
: Most-Read Full-Text Articles





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Pair Feeding, but Not Insulin, Phloridzin, or Rosiglitazone Treatment, Curtails Markers of {beta}-Cell Dedifferentiation in db/db Mice

β-Cell failure is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Among several cellular biological mechanisms of cellular dysfunction, we and others have recently proposed that dedifferentiation of β-cells can explain the slowly progressive onset and partial reversibility of β-cell failure. Accordingly, we provided evidence of such processes in humans and experimental animal models of insulin-resistant diabetes. In this study, we asked whether β-cell dedifferentiation can be prevented with diet or pharmacological treatment of diabetes. db/db mice, a widely used model of insulin-resistant diabetes and obesity, were either pair fed or treated with the Sglt inhibitor phloridzin, the insulin-sensitizer rosiglitazone, or insulin. All treatments were equally efficacious in reducing plasma glucose levels. Pair feeding and phloridzin also resulted in significant weight loss. However, pair feeding among the four treatments resulted in a reduction of β-cell dedifferentiation, as assessed by Foxo1 and Aldh1a3 immunohistochemistry. The effect of diet to partly restore β-cell function is consistent with data in human diabetes and provides another potential mechanism by which lifestyle changes act as an effective intervention against diabetes progression.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Resolution of Hypoglycemia and Cardiovascular Dysfunction After Rituximab Treatment of Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome

David Church
Jul 1, 2017; 40:e80-e82
e-Letters: Observations
: Most-Read Full-Text Articles





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Mitochondrial-Targeted Catalase Protects Against High-Fat Diet-Induced Muscle Insulin Resistance by Decreasing Intramuscular Lipid Accumulation

We explored the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of muscle insulin resistance. We assessed insulin action in vivo with a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in mice expressing a mitochondrial-targeted catalase (MCAT) that were fed regular chow (RC) or a high-fat diet (HFD) or underwent an acute infusion of a lipid emulsion. RC-fed MCAT mice were similar to littermate wild-type (WT) mice. However, HFD-fed MCAT mice were protected from diet-induced insulin resistance. In contrast, an acute lipid infusion caused muscle insulin resistance in both MCAT and WT mice. ROS production was decreased in both HFD-fed and lipid-infused MCAT mice and cannot explain the divergent response in insulin action. MCAT mice had subtly increased energy expenditure and muscle fat oxidation with decreased intramuscular diacylglycerol (DAG) accumulation, protein kinase C- (PKC) activation, and impaired insulin signaling with HFD. In contrast, the insulin resistance with the acute lipid infusion was associated with increased muscle DAG content in both WT and MCAT mice. These studies suggest that altering muscle mitochondrial ROS production does not directly alter the development of lipid-induced insulin resistance. However, the altered energy balance in HFD-fed MCAT mice protected them from DAG accumulation, PKC activation, and impaired muscle insulin signaling.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Advancing Basal Insulin Replacement in Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled With Insulin Glargine Plus Oral Agents: A Comparison of Adding Albiglutide, a Weekly GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, Versus Thrice-Daily Prandial Insulin Lispro

Julio Rosenstock
Aug 1, 2014; 37:2317-2325
Emerging Technologies and Therapeutics
: Most-Read Full-Text Articles





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