Tag Archives: Extrahepatic

Hepatic but Not Extrahepatic Insulin Clearance Is Lower in African American Than in European American Women

African Americans (AAs) tend to have higher plasma insulin concentrations than European Americans (EAs); the increased insulin concentrations have been attributed to increased secretion and/or decreased insulin clearance by liver or other tissues. This work characterizes the contributions of hepatic versus extrahepatic insulin degradation related to ethnic differences between AAs and EAs. By using a recently developed mathematical model that uses insulin and C-peptide measurements from the insulin-modified, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT), we estimated hepatic versus extrahepatic insulin clearance in 29 EA and 18 AA healthy women. During the first 20 min of the FSIGT, plasma insulin was approximately twice as high in AAs as in EAs. In contrast, insulin was similar in AAs and EAs after the 20–25 min intravenous insulin infusion. Hepatic insulin first-pass extraction was two-thirds lower in AAs versus EAs in the overnight-fasted state. In contrast, extrahepatic insulin clearance was not lower in AAs than in EAs. The difference in insulin degradation between AAs and EAs can be attributed totally to liver clearance. The mechanism underlying reduced insulin degradation in AAs remains to be clarified, as does the relative importance of reduced liver clearance to increased risk for type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes Journal current issue





  • Twitter
  • del.icio.us
  • Digg
  • Facebook
  • Technorati
  • Reddit
  • Yahoo Buzz
  • StumbleUpon

Diabetes-Associated Variation in TCF7L2 Is Not Associated With Hepatic or Extrahepatic Insulin Resistance

A common genetic variation in TCF7L2 is associated with type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism by which this occurs remains elusive. In addition to affecting insulin secretion, genetic variation at the TCF7L2 locus may alter insulin action or directly modify hepatic glucose metabolism. We sought to determine whether the diabetes-associated variant in this locus (the T allele of rs7903146) increases fasting endogenous glucose production (EGP), and impairs insulin-induced suppression of EGP and insulin-stimulated glucose disappearance. To address this, we studied individuals who were either homozygous for the diabetes-associated allele (TT) at rs7903146 or were homozygous for the protective allele (CC). Subjects were matched for other anthropometric characteristics and were studied using a euglycemic clamp. EGP and glucose uptake were measured using the tracer dilution technique, and the relative contribution of gluconeogenesis to EGP was quantitated using deuterated water corrected for transaldolase exchange. We report that the diabetes-associated variation in TCF7L2 did not associate with fasting EGP, insulin-induced suppression of EGP, and insulin-induced stimulation of glucose uptake. There was no association with the contribution of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to EGP. These data indicate that genetic variation at TCF7L2 does not predispose an individual to type 2 diabetes by altering either hepatic or extrahepatic insulin action.

Diabetes Journal current issue





  • Twitter
  • del.icio.us
  • Digg
  • Facebook
  • Technorati
  • Reddit
  • Yahoo Buzz
  • StumbleUpon