Tag Archives: Deficiency

Adipocyte-Specific Deficiency of De Novo Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Leads to Lipodystrophy and Insulin Resistance

Sphingolipids have been implicated in the etiology of chronic metabolic diseases. Here, we investigated whether sphingolipid biosynthesis is associated with the development of adipose tissues and metabolic diseases. SPTLC2, a subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase, was transcriptionally upregulated in the adipose tissues of obese mice and in differentiating adipocytes. Adipocyte-specific SPTLC2-deficient (aSPTLC2 KO) mice had markedly reduced adipose tissue mass. Fatty acids that were destined for the adipose tissue were instead shunted to liver and caused hepatosteatosis. This impaired fat distribution caused systemic insulin resistance and hyperglycemia, indicating severe lipodystrophy. Mechanistically, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) was reduced in the adipose tissues of aSPTLC2 KO mice, and this inhibited adipocyte proliferation and differentiation via the downregulation of S1P receptor 1 and decreased activity of the peroxisome proliferator–activator receptor . In addition, downregulation of SREBP (sterol regulatory element–binding protein)-1c prevented adipogenesis of aSPTLC2 KO adipocytes. Collectively, our observations suggest that the tight regulation of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis and S1P signaling plays an important role in adipogenesis and hepatosteatosis.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Adiponectin Deficiency Impairs Maternal Metabolic Adaptation to Pregnancy in Mice

Hypoadiponectinemia has been widely observed in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). To investigate the causal role of hypoadiponectinemia in GDM, adiponectin gene knockout (Adipoq–/–) and wild-type (WT) mice were crossed to produce pregnant mouse models with or without adiponectin deficiency. Adenoviral vector–mediated in vivo transduction was used to reconstitute adiponectin during late pregnancy. Results showed that Adipoq–/– dams developed glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia in late pregnancy. Increased fetal body weight was detected in Adipoq–/– dams. Adiponectin reconstitution abolished these metabolic defects in Adipoq–/– dams. Hepatic glucose and triglyceride production rates of Adipoq–/– dams were significantly higher than those of WT dams. Robustly enhanced lipolysis was found in gonadal fat of Adipoq–/– dams. Interestingly, similar levels of insulin-induced glucose disposal and insulin signaling in metabolically active tissues in Adipoq–/– and WT dams indicated that maternal adiponectin deficiency does not reduce insulin sensitivity. However, remarkably decreased serum insulin concentrations were observed in Adipoq–/– dams. Furthermore, β-cell mass, but not glucose-stimulated insulin release, in Adipoq–/– dams was significantly reduced compared with WT dams. Together, these results demonstrate that adiponectin plays an important role in controlling maternal metabolic adaptation to pregnancy.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Adipocyte Glucocorticoid Receptor Deficiency Attenuates Aging- and HFD-Induced Obesity and Impairs the Feeding-Fasting Transition

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important regulators of systemic energy metabolism, and aberrant GC action is linked to metabolic dysfunctions. Yet, the extent to which normal and pathophysiological energy metabolism depend on the GC receptor (GR) in adipocytes remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that adipocyte GR deficiency in mice significantly impacts systemic metabolism in different energetic states. Plasma metabolomics and biochemical analyses revealed a marked global effect of GR deficiency on systemic metabolite abundance and, thus, substrate partitioning in fed and fasted states. This correlated with a decreased lipolytic capacity of GR-deficient adipocytes under postabsorptive and fasting conditions, resulting from impaired signal transduction from β-adrenergic receptors to adenylate cyclase. Upon prolonged fasting, the impaired lipolytic response resulted in abnormal substrate utilization and lean mass wasting. Conversely, GR deficiency attenuated aging-/diet-associated obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy, and liver steatosis. Systemic glucose tolerance was improved in obese GR-deficient mice, which was associated with increased insulin signaling in muscle and adipose tissue. We conclude that the GR in adipocytes exerts central but diverging roles in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis depending on the energetic state. The adipocyte GR is indispensable for the feeding-fasting transition but also promotes adiposity and associated metabolic disorders in fat-fed and aged mice.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Mfn1 Deficiency in the Liver Protects Against Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance and Enhances the Hypoglycemic Effect of Metformin

Mitochondrial function can be influenced by mitochondrial shape and connectivity with other cellular organelles through fusion and fission processes. Disturbances in mitochondrial architecture and mitochondrial fusion-related genes are observed in situations of type 2 diabetes and obesity, leading to a highly fissioned mitochondrial network. To directly test the effect of reduced mitochondrial fusion on hepatic metabolism, we generated mice with a liver-specific deletion of the Mfn1 gene (Mfn1LKO) and monitored their energy homeostasis, mitochondrial function, and susceptibility to diet-induced insulin resistance. Livers from Mfn1LKO mice displayed a highly fragmented mitochondrial network. This was coupled to an enhanced mitochondrial respiration capacity and a preference for the use of lipids as the main energy source. Although Mfn1LKO mice are similar to control mice fed a low-fat diet, they are protected against insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet. Importantly, Mfn1 deficiency increased complex I abundance and sensitized animals to the hypoglycemic effect of metformin. Our results suggest that targeting Mfn1 could provide novel avenues to ameliorate glucose homeostasis in obese patients and improve the effectiveness of metformin.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Response to Comment on Patel et al. ACE2 Deficiency Worsens Epicardial Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Cardiac Dysfunction in Response to Diet-Induced Obesity. Diabetes 2016;65:85-95

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Comment on Patel et al. ACE2 Deficiency Worsens Epicardial Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Cardiac Dysfunction in Response to Diet-Induced Obesity. Diabetes 2016;65:85-95

Diabetes Journal current issue





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