Renal Denervation for Resistant Hypertension Fails to Improve Insulin Resistance as Assessed by Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic Step Clamp

We assessed whether insulin sensitivity improved after renal denervation (RDN) for resistant hypertension. Twenty-three patients underwent a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC) with glucose tracer and labeled glucose infusion and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before and 6 months after RDN. Eighteen patients had metabolic syndrome at baseline. Blood pressure declined significantly after RDN, whereas mean (SD) fasting plasma glucose concentration (5.9 ± 0.7 mmol/L), median (minimum–maximum) insulin concentration (254 pmol/L [88–797 pmol/L]), and median C-peptide concentration (2.4 nmol/L [0.9–5.7 nmol/L]) remained unchanged. Endogenous glucose release during HEC was less suppressed after RDN, suggesting a slight decrease in hepatic insulin sensitivity. During high-dose insulin infusion, whole-body glucose disposal was low and remained unchanged after RDN, indicating persistent peripheral insulin resistance (IR). Area under the curve for 0–120 min for glucose and insulin during OGTT, Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index, Simple Index Assessing Insulin Sensitivity Oral Glucose Tolerance, and HOMA-IR were high, and did not improve after RDN. Despite a significant decrease in blood pressure, neither peripheral nor hepatic insulin sensitivity improved 6 months after RDN treatment in this group of insulin-resistant patients without diabetes and with resistant hypertension, as measured with gold standard methods.

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