Category Archives: Treat Diabetes Naturally

Apoptosis Repressor With Caspase Recruitment Domain Ameliorates Amyloid-Induced {beta}-Cell Apoptosis and JNK Pathway Activation

Islet amyloid is present in more than 90% of individuals with type 2 diabetes, where it contributes to β-cell apoptosis and insufficient insulin secretion. Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) binds and inactivates components of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways and was recently found to be expressed in islet β-cells. Using a human islet amyloid polypeptide transgenic mouse model of islet amyloidosis, we show ARC knockdown increases amyloid-induced β-cell apoptosis and loss, while ARC overexpression decreases amyloid-induced apoptosis, thus preserving β-cells. These effects occurred in the absence of changes in islet amyloid deposition, indicating ARC acts downstream of amyloid formation. Because islet amyloid increases c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway activation, we investigated whether ARC affects JNK signaling in amyloid-forming islets. We found ARC knockdown enhances JNK pathway activation, whereas ARC overexpression reduces JNK, c-Jun phosphorylation, and c-Jun target gene expression (Jun and Tnf). Immunoprecipitation of ARC from mouse islet lysates showed ARC binds JNK, suggesting interaction between JNK and ARC decreases amyloid-induced JNK phosphorylation and downstream signaling. These data indicate that ARC overexpression diminishes amyloid-induced JNK pathway activation and apoptosis in the β-cell, a strategy that may reduce β-cell loss in type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Thyroid Hormone Coordinates Pancreatic Islet Maturation During the Zebrafish Larval-to-Juvenile Transition to Maintain Glucose Homeostasis

Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling promotes tissue maturation and adult organ formation. Developmental transitions alter an organism’s metabolic requirements, and it remains unclear how development and metabolic demands are coordinated. We used the zebrafish as a model to test whether and how TH signaling affects pancreatic islet maturation, and consequently glucose homeostasis, during the larval to juvenile transition. We found that exogenous TH precociously activates the β-cell differentiation genes pax6b and mnx1 while downregulating arxa, a master regulator of α-cell development and function. Together, these effects induced hypoglycemia, at least in part by increasing insulin and decreasing glucagon expression. We visualized TH target tissues using a novel TH-responsive reporter line and found that both α- and β-cells become targets of endogenous TH signaling during the larval-to-juvenile transition. Importantly, endogenous TH is required during this transition for the functional maturation of α- and β-cells in order to maintain glucose homeostasis. Thus, our study sheds new light on the regulation of glucose metabolism during major developmental transitions.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Mobile Apps for the Management of Diabetes

Sarah Chavez
Oct 1, 2017; 40:e145-e146
e-Letters: Observations
: Most-Read Full-Text Articles





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The Changing Tides of the Type 2 Diabetes Epidemic–Smooth Sailing or Troubled Waters Ahead? Kelly West Award Lecture 2016

Edward W. Gregg
Oct 1, 2017; 40:1289-1297
Kelly West Award Lecture
: Most-Read Full-Text Articles





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Recruitment of Epac2A to Insulin Granule Docking Sites Regulates Priming for Exocytosis

Epac is a cAMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factor that mediates cAMP signaling in various types of cells, including β-cells, where it is involved in the control of insulin secretion. Upon activation, the protein redistributes to the plasma membrane, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and functional consequences are unclear. Using quantitative high-resolution microscopy, we found that cAMP elevation caused rapid binding of Epac2A to the β-cell plasma membrane, where it accumulated specifically at secretory granules and rendered them more prone to undergo exocytosis. cAMP-dependent membrane binding required the high-affinity cyclic nucleotide-binding (CNB) and Ras association domains, but not the disheveled–Egl-10–pleckstrin domain. Although the N-terminal low-affinity CNB domain (CNB-A) was dispensable for the translocation to the membrane, it was critical for directing Epac2A to the granule sites. Epac1, which lacks the CNB-A domain, was recruited to the plasma membrane but did not accumulate at granules. We conclude that Epac2A controls secretory granule release by binding to the exocytosis machinery, an effect that is enhanced by prior cAMP-dependent accumulation of the protein at the plasma membrane.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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Adipocyte-Specific Deficiency of De Novo Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Leads to Lipodystrophy and Insulin Resistance

Sphingolipids have been implicated in the etiology of chronic metabolic diseases. Here, we investigated whether sphingolipid biosynthesis is associated with the development of adipose tissues and metabolic diseases. SPTLC2, a subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase, was transcriptionally upregulated in the adipose tissues of obese mice and in differentiating adipocytes. Adipocyte-specific SPTLC2-deficient (aSPTLC2 KO) mice had markedly reduced adipose tissue mass. Fatty acids that were destined for the adipose tissue were instead shunted to liver and caused hepatosteatosis. This impaired fat distribution caused systemic insulin resistance and hyperglycemia, indicating severe lipodystrophy. Mechanistically, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) was reduced in the adipose tissues of aSPTLC2 KO mice, and this inhibited adipocyte proliferation and differentiation via the downregulation of S1P receptor 1 and decreased activity of the peroxisome proliferator–activator receptor . In addition, downregulation of SREBP (sterol regulatory element–binding protein)-1c prevented adipogenesis of aSPTLC2 KO adipocytes. Collectively, our observations suggest that the tight regulation of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis and S1P signaling plays an important role in adipogenesis and hepatosteatosis.

Diabetes Journal current issue





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2017 National Standards for Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support

Joni Beck
Oct 1, 2017; 40:1409-1419
National Standards
: Most-Read Full-Text Articles





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Opposite Regulation of Insulin Sensitivity by Dietary Lipid Versus Carbohydrate Excess

To understand the mechanisms in lipid-induced insulin resistance, a more physiological approach is to enhance fatty acid (FA) availability through the diet. Nine healthy men ingested two hypercaloric diets (in 75% excess of habitual caloric intake) for 3 days, enriched in unsaturated FA (78 energy % [E%] fat) (UNSAT) or carbohydrates (80 E% carbohydrate) (CHO) as well as a eucaloric control diet (CON). Compared with CON, the UNSAT diet reduced whole-body and leg glucose disposal during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, while decreasing hepatic glucose production. In muscle, diacylglycerol (DAG) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol were increased. The accumulated DAG was sn-1,3 DAG, which is known not to activate PKC, and insulin signaling was intact. UNSAT decreased PDH-E1α protein content and increased inhibitory PDH-E1α Ser300 phosphorylation and FA oxidation. CHO increased whole-body and leg insulin sensitivity, while increasing hepatic glucose production. After CHO, muscle PDH-E1α Ser300 phosphorylation was decreased, and glucose oxidation increased. After UNSAT, but not CHO, muscle glucose-6-phosphate content was 103% higher compared with CON during the clamp. Thus, PDH-E1α expression and covalent regulation, and hence the tricarboxylic acid cycle influx of pyruvate-derived acetyl-CoA relative to β-oxidation–derived acetyl-CoA, are suggested to impact on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Taken together, the oxidative metabolic fluxes of glucose and FA are powerful and opposite regulators of insulin action in muscle.

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DDB1-Mediated CRY1 Degradation Promotes FOXO1-Driven Gluconeogenesis in Liver

Targeted protein degradation through ubiquitination is an important step in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Here, we present evidence that the DDB1-CUL4A ubiquitin E3 ligase functions as a novel metabolic regulator that promotes FOXO1-driven hepatic gluconeogenesis. In vivo, hepatocyte-specific Ddb1 deletion leads to impaired hepatic gluconeogenesis in the mouse liver but protects mice from high-fat diet–induced hyperglycemia. Lack of Ddb1 downregulates FOXO1 protein expression and impairs FOXO1-driven gluconeogenic response. Mechanistically, we discovered that DDB1 enhances FOXO1 protein stability via degrading the circadian protein cryptochrome 1 (CRY1), a known target of DDB1 E3 ligase. In the Cry1 depletion condition, insulin fails to reduce the nuclear FOXO1 abundance and suppress gluconeogenic gene expression. Chronic depletion of Cry1 in the mouse liver not only increases FOXO1 protein but also enhances hepatic gluconeogenesis. Thus, we have identified the DDB1-mediated CRY1 degradation as an important target of insulin action on glucose homeostasis.

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Hepatic but Not Extrahepatic Insulin Clearance Is Lower in African American Than in European American Women

African Americans (AAs) tend to have higher plasma insulin concentrations than European Americans (EAs); the increased insulin concentrations have been attributed to increased secretion and/or decreased insulin clearance by liver or other tissues. This work characterizes the contributions of hepatic versus extrahepatic insulin degradation related to ethnic differences between AAs and EAs. By using a recently developed mathematical model that uses insulin and C-peptide measurements from the insulin-modified, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT), we estimated hepatic versus extrahepatic insulin clearance in 29 EA and 18 AA healthy women. During the first 20 min of the FSIGT, plasma insulin was approximately twice as high in AAs as in EAs. In contrast, insulin was similar in AAs and EAs after the 20–25 min intravenous insulin infusion. Hepatic insulin first-pass extraction was two-thirds lower in AAs versus EAs in the overnight-fasted state. In contrast, extrahepatic insulin clearance was not lower in AAs than in EAs. The difference in insulin degradation between AAs and EAs can be attributed totally to liver clearance. The mechanism underlying reduced insulin degradation in AAs remains to be clarified, as does the relative importance of reduced liver clearance to increased risk for type 2 diabetes.

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